According to the World Health Organization (WHO), abortion is a safe medical procedure when it is carried out by a qualified medical provider with the appropriate equipment and in conformity with sanitary standards (WHO, 2003).
Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA) is recommended by WHO as one of the safe abortion methods that can be performed in the first trimester.
What is Manual Vacuum Aspiration?
MVA is the process through which the content of the uterus is evacuated using negative pressure produced by a special syringe. For aspiration, plastic flexible cannulas, ranging in size depending on the term of pregnancy, are used. This method avoids trauma of the cervix and of the endometrium.
The advantages of the Manual Vacuum Aspiration:
- This method avoids trauma to the cervix and endometrium: before 7 weeks pregnancy, the cannula can be inserted without cervix dilation and follow-up curettage of the uterus is not needed.
- Immediate examination of the aspiration product (the fetal egg remains intact in the syringe) allows the provider to confirm the complete evacuation of the uterine contents as well as to diagnose early ectopic pregnancy.
- The procedure takes much less time than dilatation and curettage (D&C), and it can be performed under local anesthesia. In this case, the patient can leave the hospital 15 minutes following the procedure.
- The results of over 80 scientific studies, in which about 80.000 women have been included, have shown that the number of severe complications and sterility is much lower in the case of MVA as compared to D&C.
You should refer immediately to the physician if:
- You have severe abdominal pain
- You have a fever over 38 C or chills
- You have severe bleeding – there are large blood clots or you use 2-3 large menstrual pads per hour for two consecutive hours.
- You have bad smelling or purulent vaginal eliminations.
- You have severe weakness, you have lost consciousness (you fainted), or you have difficulties breathing
- You have persistent vomiting or feeling of nausea
What should a patient know following MVA?
- After ending a pregnancy, for 2 weeks it is normal to have pain in the form of spasms in the lower abdomen and slight bleeding.
- Most women can return to normal activity virtually immediately after MVA.
- It is recommended that the patient refrain from sexual intercourse during bleeding.
- Places where the women can receive the chosen contraception method and how to use it correctly.
There are no contraindications for MVA up to 12 weeks of pregnancy. The procedure is to be performed with caution in the following cases:
- Abnormalities of the uterus
- Disorders of blood coagulation
- Acute pelvic infections
- Severe anxiety
- Any condition that causes medical instability of the patient.
Contraception after abortion
- You can become pregnant immediately after the abortion, without having menstruation before. For these reasons, if you do not desire to become pregnant at that time, then sexual contacts should be protected. Modern contraception can prevent pregnancy.
- The usual methods of contraception can be recommended in most cases.
- Hormonal contraception can be used immediately following the abortion.
- An intrauterine device (IUD) can be inserted immediately following the procedure.
- Emergency contraception can be used for up to 120 hours after unprotected intercourse.
- Natural family planning methods and coitus interruptus are not efficient methods and are not recommended.